Eventi e cultura

Il Duomo di Salerno, tra storia, arte e bellezza

Il Duomo di Salerno è fra i monumenti più importanti di tutta la provincia e il luogo di culto cardine della città. La cattedrale venne costruita in stile romantico nel XI secolo ed è stata più volte modificata, con diverse aggiunte barocche.

Nonostante la facciata barocca, la bellezza del Duomo di Salerno si svela soltanto entrandovi. All’ingresso un quadriportico, unico esempio italiano insieme a quello di Sant’Ambrogio di Milano.



La storia del Duomo di Salerno

Il Duomo di Salerno fu costruito tra il 1080 e il 1085 dopo la conquista della città da parte di Roberto il Guiscardo, mentre era arcivescovo Alfano I, poeta e medico della famosa Scuola Medica Salernitana. La chiesa fu consacrata nel giugno del 1084 da Papa Gregorio VII, ospite in esilio della città.



Costruito su un’omonima chiesa paleocristiana dedicata a santa Maria degli Angeli, sorta a sua volta sulle rovine di un tempio romano, i lavori iniziali erano di ben più modesta fattura. I progetti furono ampliati successivamente con il ritrovamento delle spoglie di San Matteo tumulate nell’antica chiesa il 4 maggio 954 e venute alla luce con la progressiva demolizione di questa.

Descrizione e struttura del Duomo di Salerno

La sensazione, entrando all’interno del Duomo di Salerno, è quella di essere stati trasportati in un paese arabo o addirittura in Andalusia: il colonnato con le colonne provenienti dall’antico Foro Romano, gli archi decorati con intarsi di pietra vulcanica, il loggiato con le bifore. La sensazione è quella di trovarsi in un luogo molto raro, soprattutto al Sud. Non a caso questo portico è considerato come il primo esempio di Architettura Mediterranea.


La facciata del Duomo di Salerno

Il Duomo è preceduto da una facciata barocca e dalla scalinata annessa. Dell’antico prospetto resta il portale, detto Porta dei Leoni a causa di due statue ai lati degli stipiti raffiguranti un leone, simbolo della forza, e una leonessa con un leoncino, simbolo della carità.

Sull’architrave, scolpita ad imitazione di un portale romano, una scritta ricorda a chi entra l’alleanza tra i principati di Salerno e di Capua. Il fregio, raffigurante una pianta di vite, rimando al salvifico Sangue di Cristo, presenta altre decorazioni animali: una scimmia, raffigurante l’eresia, e una colomba che becca i datteri, simbolo dell’anima che si pasce dei piaceri ultraterreni.



Nella lunetta al di sopra del fregio, un affresco seicentesco raffigura San Matteo che scrive il vangelo ispirato dall’angelo, che alcuni vogliono sia opera di Angelo Solimena, padre del più celebre Francesco.


Quadriportico del Duomo di Salerno 

Il portale della facciata immette ad un ampio atrio, unico esempio italiano, insieme a quello della basilica di Sant’Ambrogio, di quadriportico romanico. L’atrio è circondato da un colonnato (che era un’ideale continuazione verso l’esterno delle navate interne) le cui colonne provengono dal vicino Foro Romano di piazza.

Splendido è il loggiato soprastante considerato il punto d’inizio della cosiddetta Architettura mediterranea.



Al centro dell’atrio una fontana che è un vecchio fonte battesimale. Tra il campanile e la facciata è possibile ammirare l’Auditorium di Santa Caterina, comprendente, al pianterreno ed accessibile direttamente dalla strada, la “Sala San Lazzaro”, nella quale nel periodo natalizio è esposto un pregevole e moderno Presepe dipinto, opera del pittore locale Mario Carotenuto.

Nel quadriportico, infine, una lapide ricorda che qui fu una sede della Scuola Medica Salernitana, e che qui San Tommaso D’Aquino insegnò teologia.


Campanile del Duomo di Salerno

Addossato al lato meridionale del quadriportico è collocato invece il monumentale campanile arabo-normanno del duomo di Salerno, che si eleva per quasi 52 metri con una base di circa dieci metri per lato. Il campanile è composto di quattro cubi e termina con un tiburio a cupola. La cupoletta è demarcata da una fascia con stelle a sei punte.



Celebrazioni straordinarie del duomo di Salerno

  • 6 maggio, data della Traslazione delle reliquie del santo;
  • 25 maggio, festa di San Gregorio VII;
  • 21 agosto, alzata del Panno di San Matteo un mese prima della festa;
  • 21 settembre, data in cui si festeggia il Santo Patrono Matteo: vengono portate per le strade cittadine del centro storico le statue dei Martiri salernitani, di Gregorio VII, di san Giuseppe (l’unica in legno) ed infine la statua di san Matteo, accompagnate da alcune bande musicali locali. La mattina invece si svolge il solenne Pontificale, cui partecipano tutte le autorità e i sacerdoti della diocesi;
  • 29 settembre, festa di San Michele arcangelo

Apertura e costo del biglietto

  • Basilica – giorni feriali: dalle ore 8.30 alle ore 20.00
    giorni festivi: dalle ore 8.30 alle ore 13.00 e dalle ore 16.00 alle ore 20.00
  • Cripta – giorni feriali: dalle ore 9.00 alle ore 19.45
    giorni festivi: dalle ore 8.30 alle ore 13.00
    dalle ore 16.00 alle ore 18.00
  • Costo del biglietto: gratis

Come raggiungere il Duomo di Salerno

mappa duomo di Salerno


 

 

 

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