Curiosità

Legambiente presenta “Vista mare. Le trasformazioni dei paesaggi costieri italiani”

SALERNO. In Campania complessivamente sono 181 i chilometri di paesaggio costiero trasformato da case, alberghi, palazzi, porti e industrie, oltre la metà rispetto ai 360 chilometri totali, da Sapri a Baia Domizia. Di questi, 28 sono occupati da opere infrastrutturali (in gran parte portuali) e da attività produttive. Sono 51 i chilometri di paesaggi urbani ad alta densità, 102 i chilometri di costa occupata da insediamenti con densità più bassa. Mentre solo 17 chilometri di costa possono considerarsi ancora paesaggi agricoli e questo dato è davvero allarmante visto che, fino a pochi anni fa, erano una delle caratteristiche di molti paesaggi campani.

È questa la fotografia scattata da Legambiente e che viene raccontata nel libro “Vista mare. La trasformazione dei paesaggi italiani costieri” – edito da Edizioni Ambiente e pubblicato con il supporto di Castalia.

 

Legambiente: “Il futuro della Campania non passa per le grandi opere”

“I dati dimostrano ancora una volta come ad oggi si continui a non capire che il futuro della Campania non passa per le grandi opere, ma per l’ordinaria tutela del suo paesaggio come volano di un turismo che oggi chiede qualità e legami tra storia, mare, territorio – dichiara Michele Buonomo presidente di Legambiente Campania -. Per riuscirci servono scelte chiare di discontinuità con gli ultimi decenni di urbanizzazione, a partire dalla salvaguardia di tutte le aree ancora rimaste integre. Le nostre coste non si possono più permettere di vedere ogni anno sparire chilometri e chilometri di paesaggi, semplicemente perché le norme di tutela non funzionano. Se fino ad ora abbiamo fatto finta di non vedere quanto stava accadendo lungo le coste, oggi non possiamo più permettercelo – sottolinea Buonomo – perché ci troviamo di fronte a una fortissima crescita del turismo, con potenzialità di rilancio per alcune regioni italiane se si punta sulla riqualificazione e valorizzazione dell’offerta, e perché siamo di fronte a cambiamenti climatici che rischiano di produrre proprio nelle aree costiere impatti drammatici”.

 

Il libro

Il viaggio fotografico raccontato nel volume – realizzato attraverso una serie di scatti satellitari ravvicinati – racconta come è cambiata la costa e come il cemento, nel corso di questi anni, abbia deliberatamente invaso i litorali anche in barba alla Legge Galasso in materia di tutela paesaggistica, approvata nel 1985 e che prevede un vincolo di tutela per le aree costiere fino a 300 metri dalla linea di costa. Nonostante tale legge, in Campania sono stati “consumati” dal cemento, 29 chilometri di costa, cioè il 16% dell’intera urbanizzazione avvenuta in oltre 2.000 anni di storia. Tutto per la costruzione di nuovi complessi turistici edilizi e case singole in aree libere, e per l’espansione di alcuni agglomerati già presenti lungo la costa con un processo di saldatura e densificazione. In numeri, il 76% delle trasformazioni, 22 chilometri, è avvenuto per usi urbani (residenziale, turistico e servizi annessi); il restante 24%, cioè 7 chilometri, riguarda interventi infrastrutturali, portuali e industriali.

 

“La prospettiva da scongiurare è che litorali, baie e spiagge vengano progressivamente, anno dopo anno, divorati dal cemento”.

 

Ascea, in provincia di Salerno, risulta tra le aree in cui l’aumento della densità edilizia è maggiore, perché grandi aree agricole sono state trasformate in quartieri residenziali; la stessa situazione a Sapri, ma con densità inferiori; a Capaccio, lo scenario alle spalle della pineta è cambiato radicalmente a causa della costruzione di residence e ville di lusso, che hanno alterato irreparabilmente la suggestiva vista della pineta dalla strada; a Ispani e Castellabate, vuoti interclusi importanti sono stati occupati da nuove costruzioni residenziali e di servizio. Il tema della tutela diventa oggi centrale: il 30% delle aree costiere campane è all’interno di aree protette e quindi sottoposto ad attenzioni o vincoli di salvaguardia, almeno in teoria, perché anche in queste aree sono avvenute diverse trasformazioni edilizie. Il problema è che le aree protette riguardano in larga parte ambiti rocciosi, dove l’urbanizzazione trova difficoltà oggettive a proliferare. Sono invece diversi gli ambiti costieri pianeggianti a rischio, come nel tratto tra Caprioli e Marina di Ascea, tra Marina di Casal Velino e Acciaroli, tra Agropoli e Torre Piacentina o l’area del lago di Patria, con la Riserva Naturale di Castelvolturno, solo per citarne alcune. Soprattutto su queste aree, nel prossimo futuro, occorrerà prestare la massima attenzione, in modo da fermare ogni ulteriore cancellazione di paesaggi agricoli e naturali.

 

Nel volume, oltre alle situazioni di intollerabile illegalità e degrado, sono raccolte e segnalate alcune storie di qualità e successo.  Come la lista degli ecomostri abbattuti tra i quali l’Hotel Fuenti a Vietri sul Mare, il Villaggio Coppola a Castelvolturno e lo “scheletrone” di Alimuri in Costiera Sorrentina.

 

Il libro è stato scritto dal Vicepresidente di Legambiente Edoardo Zanchini e dall’Architetto Michele Manigrasso ed è frutto di una ricerca durata 3 anni e che ha incrociato il lavoro e i monitoraggi di Goletta Verde, dei circoli territoriali e sindaci, integrandola con racconti fotografici e le foto vincitrici del concorso sulle coste promosso da Legambiente e Ordine degli architetti di Roma. Il libro è in vendita presso le principali librerie e online http://www.edizioniambiente.it/ebook/1191/vista-mare/ i proventi delle vendite contribuiranno alla campagna Goletta Verde di Legambiente per la tutela dei mari e delle coste italiane.

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